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One of the numbers zero, +1, -1, +2, -2, . . . . Synonymous with integer number, integral number.

integer literal:
A numeric literal used to represent an integer.

integer number:
Synonym for integer.

integer type:
An ordinal type whose values represent integers within a specified range.

integral modem:
A modem that is built into a computer, as opposed to an internal modem.

integral number:
Synonym for integer.

integrated circuit (IC):
A small piece of semiconductive material that contains interconnected electronic elements. Synonymous with microchip, chip.

integrated circuit memory:
A storage device composed of transistors, diodes and other circuit elements all fabricated on a chip of crystalline material. Synonymous with IC memory.

integrated drive electronics:

integrated programming environment (IPE):
An integrated collection of hardware and software tools under a common user interface, frequently graphical, to support the development of programs.

Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN):
A set of standards for networks in which the same time-division switches and digital transmission paths are used to establish connections for different services such as telephone, data, electronic mail, and facsimile.

integrated software:
A software package that combines some of the functions performed by separate programs, such as spreadsheet programs, text processors, database management systems, and business graphics.

integration test:
The progressive linking and testing of programs or modules in order to ensure their proper functioning in the complete system.

A functional unit whose output analog variable is the integral of an input analog variable with respect to time. For some integrators, the variable of integration may be other than time.

intelligent assistant:
An expert system for aiding a person to perform a task.

intelligent terminal:
Synonym for programmable terminal.

intended recipient:
A potential recipient that the originator specifies as a message's or probe's intended destination.

Pertaining to an operating mode of a functional unit in which the functional unit responds to each user input and in which the user has the perception of directly influencing operations during the process.

interactive computer graphics:
Computer graphics in which a user dynamically controls or alters the content, format, size, or colors of an image on a display surface. Interactive computer graphics contrasts with passive computer graphics where the user cannot dynamically control or alter the elements of a display image.

interactive environment:
An operating environment in which a program during its execution responds to each user and in which the user has the perception of directly influencing operations during the process.

interactive language:
A programming language that supports communication between a user and a data processing system in a conversational mode. Synonymous with conversational language.

interactive object:
A composite object that has both input and output functions, for example: an audiovisual sequence and related menu. (Figure 69 - Examples of object types).

interactive training:
In artificial neural networks, training in which the connection weights are adjusted after each input pattern is presented. Synonymous with pattern training.

interactive voice response (IVR):
Voice response in reply to speech input from a user.

interblock gap (IBG):
Synonym for interrecord gap.

The capability of two or more nodes in different computer networks to exchange data.

Synonym for denial of service.

interdocument link:
A hyperlink between hyperdocuments.

A shared boundary defined by the characteristics of that boundary. The interface may be described at the physical level, at the software level, or as purely logic operations. For example, characteristics of the boundary may include the identification of any physical interconnections, description of signal exchanges across the boundary, or specification of functions performed on each side of the boundary. (Figure 18 - Half of a data link).

To assign numeric values to the parts of one or more structures so as to create a sequence that potentially makes better use of those structures, for example:
  1. to assign logical addresses to the sectors of a magnetic disk such that the resulting logical sequence minimizes rotational latency during data transfers,
  2. to assign addresses cyclically to a number of physical banks of memory so as to achieve overlap of access times,
  3. to distribute data in a sequence that reduces noise susceptibility during data transmission.

intermediate equipment:
Auxiliary equipment that may be inserted between the data terminal equipment and the data-circuit terminating equipment to perform additional functions before modulation or after demodulation.

intermediate language:
A target language into which all or part of a source program or a single statement, in a source language, is translated before it is further translated or interpreted. For a further translation an intermediate language may serve as a source language.

intermediate node:
A node that is at the ends of more than one branch.

intermediate system:
In OSI context, an open system that performs a relay function but is neither the data source nor the data sink for a given instance of communication. (Figure 47 - The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model).

internal label:
A label that is recorded on a data medium and that provides information about data recorded on the data medium.

internal level:
A level of consideration at which all aspects deal with the representation of information within a physical implementation of an information system.

internal memory:
Synonym for internal storage.

internal modem:
A modem constructed to be installed inside a computer. Contrast with external modem.

internal record:
Synonym for stored record.

internal schema:
The schema that describes data as it is physically stored and that includes all aspects of the environment in which a database is to reside.

internal sort:
A sort performed within internal storage.

internal storage:
An addressable storage device directly controlled by a processor. Internal storage is used to store programs while they are being processed. Internal storage includes main storage and possibly other kinds of storage devices such as cache memory and registers. Synonymous with internal memory.

The worldwide network connecting users through autonomous networks in industry, education, government, and research. The Internet uses Internet Protocol (IP) for network interconnection and routing, and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for end-to-end control. The major Internet services include electronic mail, FTP, telnet, World Wide Web, and electronic bulletin boards (Usenet). Do not confuse an internet (lowercase "i") which is a general concept, with the Internet (uppercase "I") which is a single internet of global proportions.

Synonym for internetwork. Do not confuse the Internet (with an uppercase "I"), with an internet (lowercase "I"). The term internet is very general and does NOT imply global. In fact, two or more interconnected local area networks constitute an internet, even if they are both in the same building and owned by the same organization.

Internet Protocol (IP):
Name of a connectionless communication protocol, that corresponds approximatively to network layer protocols within the OSI reference model.

Internet relay chat (IRC):
A service for conducting a chat on the Internet.

Internet resource:
Within the Internet, a resource that contains information or provides data processing capabilities, for example: a Web server.

Internet Service Provider (ISP):
A business or other organization that provides organizations or individuals with access to or presence on the Internet.

A network of two or more subnetworks. This network may include bridges, routers, gateways,or combinations thereof. Synonymous with internet.

The capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among various functional units under specified conditions.

interpersonal message (IPM):
A message in interpersonal messaging.

interpersonal messaging:
A form of message handling tailored for ordinary business or private correspondence between persons.

interpersonal messaging service:
The service provided by means of an interpersonal messaging system.

interpersonal messaging system (IPMS):
A message handling system that performs interpersonal messaging.

interpersonal notification (IPN):
Information conveyed to the originator of an interpersonal message indicating whether or not the message has been received by an intended recipient.

To analyze, translate, and execute each statement or each language construct in a source program before handling the next statement.

A program that can interpret. Synonymous with interpretive program.

interpreter device:
A device that prints on a punched card the characters corresponding to hole patterns punched in the card.

interpreter directive:
A language construct for controlling the interpretation of a program.

interpretive code:
Code expressed in a form that can be recognized and processed by an interpreter.

interpretive program:
Synonym for interpreter.

interrecord gap (IRG):
The space between two consecutive physical blocks on a data medium. Synonymous with interblock gap.

In data communications, the process whereby a master station requests a subordinate station to indicate its identity or its status.

A suspension of a process, such as the execution of a program, caused by an event external to that process, and performed in such a way that the process can be resumed. Synonymous with interruption.

interrupt-driven processing:
The operating mode in which changes in processing sequence are accomplished though interrupts.

Synonym for interrupt.

interrupt register:
A register that holds data necessary for handling interrupts.

interrupt request (IRQ):
One of a set of possible hardware interrupts, identified by a number.

interrupt request line:
A line built into a computer's internal hardware over which a device sends interrupt requests to the central processing unit. Synonymous with IRQ line.

Synonym for conjunction.

interval timer:
A device that, upon the lapse of a specified length of time, generates an interrupt signal.

intradocument link:
A hyperlink within a hyperdocument.

A network that uses some or all of the protocols of the Internet. In an intranet, nodes interact in a client-server relationship, nodes are identified by using IP addresses, and files are identified by URLs. An intranet may be connected to the Internet via firewalls, or it may be totally separate.

Synonym for predefined.

Pertaining to the property that something does not vary within a specified environment.

Deprecated synonym for negation.

To change a physical or logical state to its opposite.

Pertaining to a file, a set of records, or a relation with respect to a secondary key, such that an index exists for this secondary key and this file, set of records, or relation.

inverted file:
A file with indices on one or more attributes, such that records of the original file can be accessed through an attribute value rather than finding an attribute value from a given record; for example, an index for a file inverted on the field COLOR that contains a record for BLUE that provides pointers to the original records where the attribute for COLOR has the value BLUE.

A functional unit whose output analog variable is equal in magnitude to its input analog variable but is of opposite algebraic sign.

Synonym for input/output.

input/output controller.

I/O channel:
Synonym for input/output channel.

I/O controller:
Synonym for input/output controller.

ion-deposition printer:
A page printer in which the image is formed in electrostatic charges on a drum that picks up toner and transfers it to the paper, the drum being charged by a beam of ions.

I/O process:
Synonym for input/output process.

I/O unit:
Synonym for input/output unit.

Internet Protocol.

IP address:
In a network, the numeric address of a node that facilitates routing. This address is a number of 32 bits (or more in the next version of this protocol). It is generally represented by a sequence of four numbers in decimal notation, separated by dots. The IP address of a computer usually comprises of two parts: the network number of the network on which this computer is located, and a part identifying the computer inside its network. The "Internet Protocol" is not limited to the Internet, and is commonly used on other networks. Synonymous with dot address, IP number. Contrast with domain name, which is frequently also called IP addresss.

IP dialup access:
A non-permanent access to a network by means of switched communications. The switched network may be the telephone network. Two well-known protocols for dial-up access are Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP).

IP number:
Synonym for IP address.

integrated programming environment.

initial program load, initial program loader.

interpersonal message.

interpersonal messaging system.

interpersonal notification.

IPO chart:
Synonym for input-process-output chart.

information retrieval.

Internet relay chat.

information resource dictionary.

information resource dictionary system.

interrecord gap.

information resourcemanagement.

interrupt request.

IRQ line:
Synonym for interrupt request line.

irrational number:
A real number that is not a rational number. For example, pi and the square root of 2.

In information theory, the conditional entropy of a specific set of messages at a message sink given a specific set of messages at a message source connected to the message sink by a specific channel. Synonymous with prevarication, spread.

irreversible encipherment:
Synonym for irreversible encryption.

irreversible encryption:
Encryption that produces ciphertext from which the original data cannot be reproduced. Irreversible encryption is useful in authentication. For example, a password might be irreversibly encrypted and the resulting ciphertext stored. A password presented later would be irreversibly encrypted identically and the two strings of ciphertext compared. If they are identical, the presented password is correct . Synonymous with irreversible encipherment, one-way encryption.

information separator, international standard.

Integrated Services Digital Networks.

In computer graphics, an area delimited by a contour and surrounded by a fill pattern.

International Organization for Standardization.

isochronous transmission:
Data transmission in which there is always an integral number of unit intervals between any two significant instants.

ISO Country Code:
The representation of the name of a country according to the standard that defines three codes: a two-letter code, a three-letter code, and a three-digit code. In the Internet, the URL and the domain names use the two-letter code. ISO 3166 - Codes For The Representation Of Names Of Countries And Their Subdivisions.

isolated amplifier:
An amplifier without a direct electrical connection between the signal circuit and other circuits including ground.

isolated-words recognition:
Recognition of words pronounced separately, word by word without taking into account the other possible words.

In computer security, the containment of subjects and objects in a system in such a manner that they are separated from one another, as well as from the protection controls of the operating system.

Internet Service Provider.

information technology.

(1) An element of a set of data; as, for example, a file may consist of a number of items such as records, which, in turn, may consist of other items. (2) Abridged term for data item.

The process of performing a sequence of steps repeatedly.

iteration scheme:
The method used in loop control to determine whether to exit from a loop; for example, the "Do ... while" clause.

iteration statement:
A compound statement that includes a mechanism to control repeated execution of its enclosed statements. Synonymous with loop statement.

iteration step:
A single execution of one step within a sequence of steps of an iteration.

iterative operation:
The repetition of the algorithm for the solution of a set of equations with successive combinations of initial conditions or other parameters; each successive combination is selected by a subsidiary computation based on a predetermined set of iteration rules. Iterative operation is usually used to permit solution of boundary value problems or for automatic optimization of system parameters.

International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications.

interactive voice response.

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