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A general-purpose high-level language especially suited for systems programming, as well as for application programming; its features support and emphasize structured programming, data structures with weak typing, pointers, address manipulation, recursive functions, and bit and character manipulation.

A general purpose high-level language extension of C designed especially to support class structures, inheritance, and polymorphism as well as strong typing as desired for object-oriented programming.


cable modem:
A high-speed modem connected to a fiber or coaxial cable for data transmission.

Synonym for cache memory.

cache memory:
A special-purpose buffer, smaller and faster than main storage, used to hold a copy of instructions and data obtained from main storage and likely to be needed next by the processor. Synonymous with cache.

computer-aided design.

computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing.

A mobile housing used for insertion and removal of optical disks.

computer-aided engineering.

computer-aided instruction.

A device that is suitable for performing arithmetic operations, but that requires human intervention to initiate operations or sequences of operations.

(1) In programming languages, the instruction to transfer control from one module to another, usually with the implication that control will be given back to the calling module. A call usually specifies parameters to be passed to and from the called module. (2) To execute a call. (3) In data communications, a relationship established between data stations that includes establishing a connection, exchanging data, and terminating the connection.

call-accepted signal:
A call control signal that is sent by the called data terminal equipment to indicate that it accepts the incoming call.

(1) A procedure in which a data processing system identifies a calling terminal, disconnects the call, and dials the calling terminal to authenticate the calling terminal. Synonymous with dial back. (2) A message that a server sends to a client in response to a request from that client or to provide a response to a previous request. A server sends a callback to a client to get more information about the request or to confirm completion of that request.

call by address:
Synonym for call by reference.

call by location:
Synonym for call by reference.

call by name:
Synonym for call by reference.

call by reference:
A call in which the calling module provides to the called module the addresses of the parameters to be passed. In a call by reference, the called module has the ability to change the values of the parameters stored by the calling module. Synonymous with call by address, call by location, call by name.

call by value:
A call in which the calling module provides to the called module the actual values of the parameters to be passed. In a call by value, the called module cannot change the values of the parameters stored by or for the calling module.

call control procedure:
A specified set of protocols used to establish, maintain, and release a call.

called service user:
In OSI, a service user with which a calling service user wishes to establish a connection.

call graph:
A diagram that identifies the modules in a system or program and shows which modules call one another. The result is not necessarily the same as that shown in a structure chart. Synonymous with call tree. (Figure 11 - Call graph).

calligraphic display device:
A display device in which the display elements may be generated in any program-controlled sequence. Synonymous with directed-beam display device.

calling sequence:
In programming, a sequence of instructions that causes the execution of a subprogram, provides it, if necessary, with data to be processed, and that controls the delivery of results (if any) and the return to the calling program.

calling service user:
In OSI, a service user that initiates a request for the establishment of a connection.

call initiation:
That part of a call that involves the process of establishing a connection up to and including the signaling of the intended recipient data stations, but not including any user data exchange.

call-not-accepted signal:
A call control signal sent by the called data terminal equipment to indicate that it does not accept the incoming call.

call tree:
Synonym for call graph.

computer-aided manufacturing.

(1) The cancel character. (2) crossbar associative network.

cancel character (CAN):
A control character used to indicate that the data with which it is associated are in error or are to be disregarded.

canonical name:
Part of a domain name of an Internet resource indicating its type or its capabilities. One Internet resource may have a set of different domain names, one of which is the preferred one. Example: The www in www.isi.edu denotes a link to a host computer containing a Web server.

computer-aided planning.

In computer security, a representation of the address of an object that defines one or more authorized access types. A capability can be implemented in the form of a ticket.

capability list:
A list associated with a subject that identifies all of the subject's access types for all objects; for example, a list associated with a process that identifies all of its access types for all files and other protected resources.

capacitor storage:
A storage device that uses the capacitive properties of certain materials.

computer-aided production control.

computer-aided production management.

computer-aided process planning.

computer-aided quality assurance.

computer-aided quality assurance.

card column:
A line of punch positions parallel to the shorter edges of a punch card.

card deck:
A group of punched cards.

card duplicator:
Synonym for card reproducing punch.

card feed:
The mechanism that moves cards one at a time from the card hopper to the card path.

card hopper:
The part of a card-processing device that holds the cards to be processed and makes them available to the card feed.

In a relational database, the number of tuples in a relation.

card path:
In a card-processing device, the path along which cards are moved and guided.

card punch:
An output unit that produces a record of data in the form of hole patterns in punch cards.

card reader:
An input unit that reads or senses the holes in a punched card, transforming the data from the hole patterns to electric signals.

card reproducer:
Synonym for card reproducing punch.

card reproducing punch:
A device that prepares one punched card from another, copying all or part of the data from the punched card that is read. Synonymous with card reproducer, card duplicator.

card row:
A line of punch positions parallel to the longer edges of a punch card.

card sorter:
A device that deposits punched cards in pockets selected according to the hole patterns in the cards.

card stacker:
The part of a card-processing device that receives the cards after they have been processed.

carriage return:
The movement of the print or display position to the first position on the same line.

carriage-return character (CR):
A format effector that causes the print position or display position to move to the first position on the same line.

A wave or an oscillation whose characteristic quantities may be varied by a signal. The wave or oscillation may be, for example, a sinusoidal wave or a pulse train.

carrier sense:
In a local area network, an ongoing activity of a data station to detect whether another station is transmitting.

carrier sense multiple access (CSMA):
A multiple access technique where data stations mediate their own use of the common resource based upon presence or absence of a carrier from another user.

carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance network:
CSMA/CA network.

carrier sense multiple access with collision detection network:
CSMA/CD network.

(1) The action of transferring a carry digit. (2) To transfer a carry digit. (3) One or more digits, produced in connection with an arithmetic operation on one digit place of two or more numerals in positional notation, that are forwarded to another digit place for processing there.

carry digit:
A digit that is generated when a sum or a product in a digit place exceeds the largest number that can be represented in that digit place and that is transferred for processing elsewhere. In positional notation, a carry digit is transferred to the digit place with next higher weight for processing there.

controlled access system.

cascaded windows:
Two or more overlapping windows created and displayed under common control. Contrast with tiling.

cascading menu:
A menu structure whereby a selection may cause the appearance of another menu.

case-based learning:
A learning strategy that consists of comparing the problem at hand with a set of previously solved problems and using their solutions to develop a solution to the problem at hand. After successful verification, the solution developed through case-based learning and its corresponding problem are added to the case base.

case statement:
A conditional statement that selects for execution one of a number of alternative sequences of statements depending on the value of a conditional expression.

(1) In computer programming, to explicitly declare a variable or other object to be of a specific type. (2) The list of actors of a multimedia application.

computer-aided testing.

(1) A directory of data entities, with references to their locations. (2) To enter information about a data entity into a catalog; for example, to catalog a file in a file allocation table.

In computer security, a nonhierarchical designation applied to sensitive information so that access to the data can be controlled more finely than with hierarchical classification alone. Contrast with compartment, security level.

causal analysis:
In a learning strategy, analysis by tracing the probable causes of an observed event, such as failure to achieve a goal.

configuration control board.

commitment, concurrency, and recovery.

An optical disk in which a digital signal is represented as a sequence of pits along a spiral track and is read by a beam of light. One standard for CD's provides for a diameter of 120 mm. CD is the abbreviation for compact disc, compact disk.

A CD standard for interactive viewing of audiovisual recordings. CD-I is the abbreviation for compact disc-interactive.

code division multiple access.

A type of CD-ROM that can be written on a CD recorder and read on a CD-ROM drive. CD-R is the abbreviation for compact disc-recordable.

CD recorder:
A device used to write CDs.

A CD intended for use as a read-only memory.

CD-ROM array:
A large-capacity jukebox that can hold many disks.

(1) In OSI, a fixed-length block labeled at the physical layer of the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model. (2) In a computer system, an internal hardware location that has an address. (3) A single location on a spreadsheet. (4) In cellular telephony, the smallest geographic area defined for certain mobile systems.

cell decomposition:
A system of spatial partitioning representation that defines a set of primitive components that are typically parameterized and that are often curved. Contrast with primitive instancing.

cell modem:
Synonym for cellular modem.

cellular modem:
A modem used in mobile computing applications that uses cellular communications. Synonymous with cell modem.

cellular telephone:
A mobile communications system that uses a combination of radio transmission and conventional land-line telephone switching to permit telephone communication to and from mobile users within a specified area. In cellular telephone systems, large geographical areas are segmented into many smaller areas, i.e., cells, each of which has its own radio transmitters and receivers and a single controller interconnected with the public switched telephone network.

To arrange a text so that it is evenly positioned with respect to a reference point on a horizontal line, a vertical line, or both.

central processing unit (CPU):
A processing unit that is central to the performance of a computer. Many systems have multiple processors, such as the processors managing peripherals and in symmetric multiprocessing, where no single processor is central.

certainty factor:
A value attributed to the validity of a proposition, of a hypothesis, of an inference rule, or of a conclusion of an inference. Synonymous with confidence factor.

In computer systems, a technical evaluation, made as part of and in support of the accreditation process, that establishes the extent to which a particular design and implementation of a computer system or of a network meet a prescribed set of requirements.

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