0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ

PREVIOUS PAGE         Return to ANSDIT

A capability of a system or device to be attached to other systems or devices without modification.

connect duration:
The length of time that a terminal is connected and able to communicate with a computer. Contrast with connect time.

connected-words recognition:
Synonym for continuous-speech recognition.

(1) An association established between functional units for data transmission. (2) In programming languages, a technique that enables interaction among modules, particularly procedure-call statements to asynchronous procedures. (3) In OSI architecture, a cooperative relationship established by a given layer between two or more entities of the next higher layer for the purpose of data transfer.

An interdisciplinary approach to artificial intelligence where complex computations are carried out by a network of simple processing elements, each of which is connected to a great number of other elements, and which exchange simple messages, and where parallel processing occurs among a great number of such elements. Connectionism is inspired by the operation of biological neural systems such as the human brain. Synonymous with connection science.

connectionist learning:
Learning through changes in the connection weights of artificial neurons in a artificial neural network.

connectionist model:
A computational model based on connectionism. Connectionist models are, for instance, applied in knowledge representation, pattern recognition, computer vision, natural language understanding, learning, and motion control.

connectionless-mode transmission:
The transmission of a single unit of data from a source service access point to one or more destination service access points without establishing a connection. Synonymous with connectionless transmission.

connectionless transmission:
Synonym for connectionless-mode transmission.

connection-mode transmission:
The transmission of units of data from a source service access point to one or more destination service access points by means of a connection. The connection is established prior to data transfer and released following data transfer. Synonymous with connection-oriented transmission.

connection-oriented transmission:
Synonym for connection-mode transmission.

connection science:
Synonym for connectionism.

connection strength:
Synonym for connection weight.

connection updates per second (CUPS):
The number of neural connection updates per second in the learning mode.

connection weight:
In artificial neural networks, a coefficient that multiplies an input value of an artificial neuron before it is combined with other input values. Synonymous with connection strength.

(1) The capability of a system or device to be attached to a given computer network. (2) A property of a computer network in which it is always possible to connect any two devices. (3) The degree to which elements of a network are connected by direct branches. For example, a fully connected network has a direct branch between any two nodes. (Figure 43 - Network topologies).

connectivity analysis:
In computer graphics, image analysis using a technique for segmenting binary images based on pixel adjacency. Connectivity analysis is used for isolating pixel blobs. In a rectangular pixel grid, connectivity is defined as either 4-sided or 8-sided. In a 4-sided connection, analysis is made relative to each of the four neighboring pixels.

A flowchart symbol that represents a break in a flowline and that indicates where the flowline is continued.

connect time:
Any part of the time in which a terminal is connected and able to communicate with a computer. Contrast with connect duration.

Pertaining to two or more processes in which one event must finish before another begins. Contrast with sequential.

consistent generalization:
A concept generalization that includes some or all positive examples of a conceptual class and that excludes all negative examples of that class.

Abridged term for operator console.

A quadruple, established by a declaration or an implicit declaration, that consists of an identifier, a set of data attributes, one or more addresses, and only one data value.

constant function:
The function that allows a number to be entered and held in a calculator for repeated use.

An adaptation of a data type that restricts its value or operations.

constraint-based generalization:
A concept generalization that satisfies the constraints on concepts used to explain a given fact or event.

constraint rule:
A rule that limits a search to a designated portion of the problem space.

constructive solid geometry:
Solid modeling in which simple primitives are combined by means of regularized Boolean set operators that are included directly in the representation. (Figure 14 - Constructive solid geometry).

The online interaction between an expert system or a knowledge-based system and a user seeking assistance.

contact bounce:
An unwanted making and breaking of the connection while opening or closing a contact.

contact input:
A binary input generated by opening or closing a switch. The switch could be either mechanical or electronic.

contact interrogation signal:
A signal whose value indicates whether a contact is open or closed.

contact protection:
Protection of a mechanical contact against overcurrent or overvotage.

In security, the introduction of data of one security classification or security category into data of a lower security classification or different security category.

In electronic mail, the part of a message that the message transfer system neither examines nor modifies, except for conversion, during the transmittal of the message. In some types of messages, the content consists of a heading and a body.

content-addressable memory:
Synonym for associative storage.

content-addressable storage:
Synonym for associative storage.

content coupling:
Coupling in which one module refers to or changes the code of another module.

content hosting:
Storage and management of databases by a content provider. Synonymous with hosting.

A condition arising when two or more data stations attempt to transmit at the same or overlapping time over the same transmission channel.

content provider:
An organization that creates and maintains databases containing information from an information provider. The content provider and the information provider may be the same organization.

content type:
The part of the header identifying the syntax and semantics of the overall content; for example: plaintext, ASN.1, SGML.

contextual analysis:
The process of identifying an object by known factors governing its appearance in a particular context.

contiguous-words recognition:
Recognition of spoken word sequences separated by pauses coming in addition to those of normal speech situations.

contingency plan:
A plan for backup procedures, emergency response, and post-disaster recovery. Synonymous with disaster plan, disaster recovery plan.

contingency procedure:
A procedure that is an alternative to the normal path of a process if an unusual but anticipated situation occurs.

continuation test:
In a loop control, the test in which a TRUE condition indicates that the iteration should continue; the FALSE condition indicates that the iteration should terminate. For example, in Pascal, the loop-control variable for a continuation test is in the "while" clause.

continuous branching:
In an interactive medium presentation, a feature allowing a user to modify a program at any point rather than only at specific branching points.

continuous forms:
Blank paper or forms fed through a printer continuously. Synonymous with continuous forms paper.

continuous forms paper:
Synonym for continuous forms.

continuous image:
Deprecated synonym for analog image.

continuous-speech recognition:
Recognition of utterances in normal speech situations.

continuous-tone printer:
Synonym for dye-sublimation printer.

A set of points having the same value of a given attribute and forming a line that may serve as a boundary of an area. A contour can be displayed as a set of highlighted points.

A geometrical operation that decreases the size of a object.

Difference in luminance between light and dark areas of an image. Contrast is usually expressed as a ratio.

contrast enhancement:
Any image-processing operation that improves the contrast of an image.

contrast ratio:
Ratio between the maximum and minimum luminance values.

contrast shrinking:
Image processing that involves multiplying each pixel value by a factor less than one.

contrast stretching:
Image processing that involves multiplying each pixel value by a factor greater than one.

contrast transfer function (CTF):
A measure of the response of a vision system to a square-wave where its limits are the contrast range. This response may be used to estimate the resolution.

control area:
(1) A storage area used by a program to hold control information. (Figure 27 - Frame in data communication). (2) Synonym for control zone.

control ball:
Synonym for trackball.

control breakpoint:
Synonym for code breakpoint.

control bus:
A bus carrying the signals that regulate system operations.

control character:
A character whose purpose is to effect format, to control data transmission, or to perform other control functions. A control character, although it is not a graphic character, may have a graphic representation.

control coupling:
Coupling in which one module passes data to another module for the explicit purpose of influencing the operation of the latter module.

control flow:
A path the execution sequence may take through a program. An abstraction of all the control flows can be represented by a control flow diagram.

control flow diagram:
A diagram that depicts the set of all possible sequences in which operations may be performed during the execution of a system or program. Synonymous with control flow graph.

control flow graph:
Synonym for control flow diagram.

control-flow trace:
Synonym for execution trace.

control frame:
A frame sent by a layer or a sublayer to an entity of the same layer or sublayer in another system but not passed to higher layers or sublayers. For example, a medium access control frame.

control language:
Synonym for command language.

controlled access system (CAS):
A means of automating physical access control; for example, the use of magnetic-striped badges, smart cards, biometric readers.

controlled maintenance:
Maintenance intended to sustain a desired quality of service in order to minimize preventive maintenance and to reduce corrective maintenance.

control program:
A program designed to schedule and to supervise the execution of programs in a data processing system.

control station:
In basic mode link control, the data station that nominates the master station and supervises polling, selecting, interrogating, and recovery procedures.

control track:
A track containing the data on media parameters and format necessary for writing, reading and erasing the remaining tracks on the optical disk.

control zone:
A zone of an optical disk that contains control tracks. Synonymous with control area.

Pertaining to a operating mode of a functional unit in which a user and a functional unit exchange a sequence of related entries and responses in a manner similar to a dialog between two people.

To change the representation of data from one form to another, without changing the information conveyed. For example, code conversion, radix conversion; analog to digital conversion, media conversion.

convex programming:
In operations research, a particular case of nonlinear programming in which the function to be maximized or minimized and the constraints are appropriately convex or concave functions of the controllable variables.

In virtual reality, to filter and intertwine signals and render a three-dimensional perception.

A record created by a Web server, stored on a user's storage device, and accessed by the Web server in order to facilitate subsequent communication.

cooperative multitasking:
A form of multitasking in which it is the responsibility of the currently running task to periodically and voluntarily give up the processor to allow other tasks to run.

coordinate graphics:
Computer graphics in which display images are composed entirely of line segments. Synonymous with line graphics.

Synonym for electronic copresence.

(1) A processor that does additional functions or assists the main processor; for example: a floating-point processor. (2) A processor that extends the functionality of a main processor and performs some special functions faster than the main processor, under control of the main processor.

To read data from a source data medium, leaving the source data unchanged, and to write the same data on a destination data medium that may differ from that of the source. For example, to copy a file from a magnetic tape onto a magnetic disk.

copy protection:
The use of special techniques to detect or prevent the unauthorized copying of data, software, or firmware.

copy recipient:
A recipient for whom a message is not primarily intended but who is included in the distribution list to be kept informed. The list of copy recipients is frequently labeled with a "cc"; the label is derived from "carbon copy". Synonymous with secondary recipient.

A point representing an abrupt change in the direction of a line or a region about that point.

A subprogram that, when called again after an execution, resumes at the location to which its previous execution returned.

corrective maintenance:
Maintenance carried out after occurrence of a failure or detection of a fault in order to restore or to return a functional unit to a state in which it can perform a required function.

correctness proving:
A formal mathematical demonstration that the semantics of a program is consistent with the specifications of that program.

The pairing of points in two images such that each point in a pair of points is the image of the same point in space.

correspondent entities:
In OSI, entities in the same layer that have a connection between them at the next lower layer.

A functional unit with a finite number of states each of which represents a number that can be, upon receipt of an appropriate signal, increased or decreased by unity or by a given constant. A counter is usually capable of bringing the represented number to a specified value, for example, zero.

An action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that is designed to minimize vulnerability.

country name:
A standard attribute that identifies a country. The country name is generally the two-letter symbol of the country, according to ISO 3166. (Figure 66 - Examples of O/R addresses).

Interconnection or interdependence of different modules. Loose coupling implies little or no interconnection or interdependence. Kinds of coupling may be ranked from loose to tight as follows: no coupling, data coupling, control coupling, external coupling, common-environment coupling, content coupling. Contrast with cohesion.

covert channel:
A transmission channel that may be used to transfer data in a manner that violates security policy.

central processing unit.

(1) An abbreviation denoting a credit symbol in the amount field. (2) The carriage-return character.

cyclic redundancy check.

Data that are transferred to establish the claimed identity of an entity.

credit/blame assignment:
Identification of the decisions or operators responsible for the success or failure of achieving a goal.

critical section:
A portion of a task during the execution of which other parts of this or other tasks are prohibited from execution.

An assembler that uses one computer to assemble a program into an object language of a different computer.

crossbar associative network (CAN):
Synonym for Hopfield network.

A compiler that uses one computer to compile a program into an object language of a different computer.

To post to more than one forum.

cross-sensory substitution:
The process of converting the signals for one sense into the signals for another sense.

The disturbance caused in a circuit by an unwanted transfer of energy from another circuit.

A device that presents data in visual form by means of controlled electron beams. CRT is the abbreviation for cathode ray tube.

CRT display:
Cathode ray tube display.

cryogenic storage:
A storage device that uses the superconductive and magnetic properties of certain materials at very low temperatures.

The analysis of a cryptographic system, its inputs or outputs, or both, to derive sensitive information, including plaintext.

cryptanalytical attack:
Synonym for analytical attack.

cryptographic security:
Synonym for cryptosecurity.

cryptographic system:
The documents, devices, equipment, and associated techniques that are used together to provide a means of encryption or decryption. Synonymous with cipher system, cryptosystem.

The discipline that embodies the principles, means, and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide their semantic content, prevent their unauthorized use, or prevent their undetected modification.

The field of learning dealing with cryptography and cryptanalysis.

The use of cryptography for security. Synonymous with cryptographic security.

Synonym for cryptographic system.

carrier sense multiple access.

carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance.

CSMA/CA network:
A network in which the medium access control protocol requires carrier sense and where a station always starts transmission by sending a jam signal; if there is no collision with jam signals from other stations, it begins sending data; otherwise, it stops transmission and then tries again later.

carrier sense multiple access with collision detection.

CSMA/CD network:
A bus network in which the medium access control protocol requires carrier sense and in which exception conditions caused by collision are resolved by retransmission.

contrast transfer function.

The representation of space as a regular array of cubes. (Figure 15 - Cuberille of a torus).
closed user group.

connection updates per second.

current pointer:
A pointer that is updated, if necessary, at the execution of a data manipulation language statement to identify the location of the current data object of the data manipulation.

(1) A movable, normally visible reference point that indicates a position of special interest in a display space, such as where the next data will be introduced. More than one cursor may be present. (2) In a relational database, a pointer to a row in a table, used to move within that table. In SQL, a current pointer is called a "cursor."

curve follower:
An input unit that reads data represented by a curve.

curve generator:
A functional unit that converts an encoded representation of a curve into the graphic representation of the curve for display.

To tailor the elements of an already configured information processing system to meet the desires of a particular user.

cut and paste:
A function that enables a user to move graphics or text from a document to the same or a different document through the use of a clipboard. Contrast with block move.

Synonym for pruning.

The transfer of functions of a system to its successor at a given moment.

The branch of learning that brings together theories and studies on communication and control in living organisms and in machines.

A virtual community formed by computers, computer networks, and their users. In cyberspace, people share discussion groups or chat groups and behave socially much like people in a small village who know all their neighbors.

cyberspace interior:
Synonym for virtual-world interior.

cyberspace representation:
Synonym for virtual reality realization.

cyberspace room:
Synonym for virtual-world room.

Any set of operations that is repeated regularly in the same sequence. The operations may be subject to variations on each repetition.

cycle stealing:
The process by which the currently operating device is suspended by a few clock cycles to permit a second device or functional unit to perform an operation; such as suspending the central processing unit to transfer data directly to memory across a bus without going through that central processing unit.

cycle time:
The minimum time interval between the starts of successive read/write cycles of a storage device.

cyclic redundancy check (CRC):
A redundancy check in which the extra digits or characters are generated by a cyclic algorithm.

cyclic storage:
Synonym for circulating storage.

On a magnetic disk or in an assembly of disks, the set of all tracks that can be accessed by all the magnetic heads of a comb in a given position.

Next Page