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floating decimal mode:
A mode in which the decimal marker is automatically positioned in the result of a calculation irrespective of the mode in which the input data is entered.

floating head:
A magnetic head floating on a layer of air away from the recording surface. Synonymous with flying head.

floating-point base:
In a floating-point representation system, the fixed positive integer base, greater than unity, that is raised to the power explicitly denoted by the exponent and then multiplied by the coefficient to determine the real number represented. Example: One floating-point representation of the number 0.0001234 is
      0.1234 is the coefficient;
      -3 is the exponent, designated by E.
The numerals are expressed in the variable-point decimal system; the floating-point base is 10. Synonymous with floating-point radix.

floating-point radix:
Synonym for floating-point base.

floating-point register:
A register used to manipulate data in a floating-point representation system.

floating-point representation:
A representation of a real number in a floating-point representation system. Example: One floating-point representation of the number 0.0001234 is
      0.1234 is the coefficient;
      -3 is the exponent, designated by E.
The numerals are expressed in the variable-point decimal system; the floating-point base is 10.

floating-point representation system:
A numeration system in which a real number is represented by a pair of distinct numerals, the real number being the product of the coefficient, one of the numerals, and a value obtained by raising the floating-point base to a power denoted by the exponent indicated by the second numeral. In a floating-point representation system there are many representations of the same number obtained by moving the radix point and adjusting the exponent accordingly.

floating-point type:
A numeric type whose values are expressed in a floating-point representation system. (Figure 19 - Examples of data types).

floating-point unit:
In a processor, the part that performs arithmetic operations in a floating-point representation system.

(1) Accidental or intentional insertion of a large volume of data resulting in denial of service. (2) In networking, sending large quantities of electronic mail to one or more recipients. This technique is used for testing but may also be used maliciously.

Synonym for floppy disk.

floppy disk:
A flexible magnetic disk enclosed in a protective container. Synonymous with diskette, flexible disk, flexible diskette, floppy, floppy diskette.

floppy diskette:
Synonym for floppy disk.

floptical disk:
A flexible magneto-optical disk. A floptical disk can achieve greater storage capacity than normal floppy disks without sacrificing access speed.

flow analysis:
(1) In compilers, a technique used to determine the specific interdependencies of the elements of a program. (2) The detection and recording of the sequencing of instructions in programs, as used, for example, in monitors and debugging routines.

A graphical representation of a process or the step-by-step solution of a problem, using suitably annotated geometric figures connected by flowlines, for the purpose of designing or documenting a process or program. Synonymous with flow diagram. (Figure 25 - Example of a flowchart).

flowchart symbol:
A symbol used to represent operations, data, flow direction, or equipment on a flowchart. (Figure 26 - Typical flowchart symbols).

flowchart text:
The descriptive information that is associated with flowchart symbols.

flow control:
In data communications, control of the actual transfer rate.

flow diagram:
Synonym for flowchart.

flow direction:
On a flowchart, the indicators of the antecedent-to-successor relations among the symbols.

A line representing a connection or path between the symbols in a flowchart to indicate a transfer of data or control.

flush left:
Synonym for left-justified.

flush right:
Synonym for right-justified.

flying head:
Synonym for floating head.

flying height:
In magnetic storage, the distance between a magnetic head and the surface of the recording medium. Synonymous with head gap.

flying mouse:
Synonym for airborne mouse.

flying-spot scanner:
In computer graphics, a device that uses a moving spot of light to scan a sample space, the intensity of the reflected light being sensed by a photoelectric transducer.

frequency modulation.

FM recording:
frequency modulation recording.

flexible manufacturing system.

A logical or virtual construct for organizing documents or electronic mail.

Synonym for follow-up posting.

follow-up posting:
In a forum or on a bulletin board, a posting that contains a specific reference to a previous posting. Synonymous with follow-up.

In text processing, a set of characters of the same size and style; for example, 9-point Helvetica.

font change character (FC):
A control character that selects and makes effective a change in the specific shape or size, or shape and size of the graphics for a set of graphemes, the character set remaining unchanged.

forced page break:
Synonym for hard page break.

A language construct for iteration control that defines the test to be performed for such control, usually based on a loop-control variable, and the prescription for the changes of that iteration control variable to be carried out during or between iteration steps.

foreground image:
That part of a display image that shows ongoing changes and may be in front of another image. Synonymous with dynamic image.

foreground processing:
The execution of a program that preempts the use of computer facilities.

foreign key:
In a relation, a set of one or more attributes that corresponds to a primary key in another relation.

formal logic:
The structure and forms of valid argument that may be used without regard to the meaning of the terms in the argument.

formal parameter:
A parameter, defined in the declaration of certain modules, that is associated with an actual parameter in a call or generic instantiation. Synonymous with dummy argument.

formal parameter mode:
A characteristic that indicates whether a formal parameter may be evaluated without changing it, may be given a new value, or may be evaluated and updated; for example: pass by value, pass by reference.

formal security policy model:
A mathematically precise statement of a security policy, for example; Bell-LaPadula model.

formal specification:
In computer programming, a specification written in a formal notation, often for use in correctness proving.

formal verification:
In computer security, the use of formal proofs for design verification or implementation verification.

A region of frequency prominence in the band of speech frequencies.

formant synthesis:
The generation of artificial speech by means of filters that model the formants of the human vocal tract.

(1) To prepare a data medium such that a particular computer system can store data in and subsequently retrieve data from the medium. (2) In programming languages, a language construct that specifies the representation, in character form, of data objects in a record, file, message, storage device, or transmission channel. (3) In text processing, a specified arrangement or layout of text in printed or displayed form or on a data medium.

format effector:
A control character used to position printed, displayed, or recorded data; for example: space character, horizontal tabulation character, carriage-return character, line feed character, and form feed character. (Figure 12 - Character taxonomy).

(1) The preparation of a data medium such that a particular computer system can store data in and subsequently retrieve data from the medium. (2) In text processing, the capability of a text editor or other text processing software that allows the preparation of the layout of text according to criteria specified by the user.

form feed:
The movement of the print or display position to the predetermined first line on the next form, the next page or the equivalent. Synonymous with first-line find.

form feed character (FF):
The format effector that causes the printing or display position to move to the next predetermined first line on the next form, the next page, or the equivalent.

form flash:
The display of a form overlay.

form letter:
A letter containing standardized (canned) text, that can be personalized by adding information such as the names and addresses of one or more recipients.

form overlay:
A pattern such as a report form, grid, or map used as a background image.

A programming language primarily used to express programs by arithmetic formulae, orginally designed for solving problems in mathematics, engineering, and science. The name was originally spelled FORTRAN and is the abbreviation derived from FORmula TRANslation.

A computer conference that is devoted to one subject and in which the messages are stored in a central site, so as to allow each user to read them at any moment. Forums usually have an initiator, members, readers, and possibly moderators and may have associated chat groups and libraries. Synonymous with newsgroup, discussion group.

forum server:
Synonym for news server.

In electronic mail, to transmit a received message after assigning a new intended recipient.

forward chaining:
In artificial intelligence, an iterative paradigm for deriving inferences that starts with established facts and ends when the rule-based system reaches a goal or runs out of new possibilities.

forward channel:
A transmission channel in the direction that user data is being transferred.

forward LAN channel:
In a broadband LAN, the channel assigned for data transmission from the headend to the data stations.

forward propagation:
Synonym for feedforward propagation.

forward-propagation network:
Synonym for feedforward network.

forward recovery:
The data reconstitution of a later version of data by using an earlier version and data recorded in a journal.

Fourier processing:
A mathematical technique of processing the image represented by the spatial frequency components of its signal.

fourth-generation language (4GL):
A high-level language that allows a user, not necessarily a programmer, to write statements in near-natural language, that has a ratio of machine instructions to simple statements much higher than that of a third-generation language, and that elevates the level of abstraction at which the user may work beyond that of previous generations of programming languages. For example, in a fourth-generation language, sorting a customer list could be expressed as: "Sort customer_list on customer_name in ascending order". The user need not know any sorting algorithm. dBASE is a fourth-generation language.


fully qualified domain name.

(1) In data communications, a data structure that consists of fields, predetermined by a protocol, for the transmission of user data and control data. The composition of a frame, especially the number and types of fields, may vary according to the type of protocol. Synonymous with transmission frame. (Figure 27 - Frame in data communication). (2) In artificial intelligence, a knowledge structure that pertains to a particular domain and consists of slots that can accept the values of specific attributes, called facets, and from which inferences can be drawn by appropriate procedures. (3) In computer vision, a display of the data that contains a complete image. (4) A rectangular section of a Web page that has the general features of a separate Web page, such as scrolling.

frame buffer:
A buffer storage that holds the values of all the pixels of a display image. Synonymous with video RAM (VRAM).

frame check sequence (FCS):
A sequence of bits determined by the data present within the frame and included in the frame to allow detection of transmission errors. (Figure 27 - Frame in data communication).

frame control field:
In data communications, a bit pattern that defines the type of frame and certain control functions.

frame end delimiter:
Synonym for end-of-frame.

frame grabber:
A functional unit for selecting a single frame of a video signal as an image suitable for further processing.

frame start delimiter:
Synonym for start-of-frame.

In frame-based sites, the linking to other sites while retaining the original frames and placing the linked content inside an existing or a new frame.

free-space administration:
The use of programs to manage available storage space for a database.

Software that is given away.

frequency division multiple access (FDMA):
A multiple access technique in which a separate frequency band is allocated to each data station to access the shared resource.

frequency division multiplexing (FDM):
Multiplexing in which several independent signals are allocated separate frequency bands for transmission over a single transmission medium.

frequency modulation (FM):
The form of angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency of a sine wave carrier is caused to depart from the carrier frequency by an amount proportional to the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. (Figure 28 - Frequency modulation).

frequency modulation recording:
Nonreturn-to-zero recording in which there is a change in the condition of the recorded signal at each cell boundary, and a further change in the center of the cell to represent a 1. In modified frequency modulation recording (MFM recording), the change of the recorded signal at cell boundaries occurs only when the two cells each contain a zero. Synonymous with FM recording. (Figure 29 - Frequency modulation recording).

frequency shift keying (FSK):
Modulation in which a modulating digital signal varies the frequency of the output signal among a fixed number of predetermined values.

frequently asked questions (FAQ):
A list of common questions posed by users of a computer conference, often accompanied by answers.

friction feed:
A paper feed in which the paper is pinched either between a platen and pressure rollers or between two sets of rollers.

front-end computer:
Synonym for front-end processor.

front-end processor (FEP):
In a computer network, a processor that relieves a host computer of communication tasks. The tasks of the front-end processor may include line control, message handling, code conversion, and error control. Synonymous with front-end computer.

front lighting:
Illumination of an object that results in light reflections from its surface in the direction of the image sensor.

The field separator character.

frequency shift keying.

file transfer, access, and management.

A standard high-level protocol for transferring files from one computer to another, is usually implemented as an application-level program, and uses the telnet and TCP protocols. In conjunction with the proper local software, FTP allows computers connected to the Internet to exchange files, regardless of the computer platform. FTP is the abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol.

full adder:
A combinational circuit that has
  1. three inputs that are an augend, D, an addend, E, and a carry digit, F, transferred from another digit place,
  2. and two outputs that are a sum without carry, T, and a new carry digit, R,
and in which the outputs are related to the inputs as shown in the figure. C is internal carry, S is the internal sum without carry. (Figure 30 - Full adder).

full-body suit:
Synonym for body suit.

full-duplex transmission:
Synonym for duplex transmission.

full-page display:
The display of as many lines of text or graphics at a time as can be printed on a page.

full subtracter:
A combinational circuit that has
  1. three inputs that are a minuend, I, a subtrahend, J, and a borrow digit, K, transferred from another operation,
  2. and two outputs that are a difference without carry, W, between the first digit and the sum of the second digit and the borrow digit, and a new borrow digit, X,
and in which the outputs are related to the inputs as shown in the figure. S is the internal sum without carry, and C is an internal carry. (Figure 31 - Full subtracter).

fully connected network:
(1) A network in which there is a branch between any two nodes. (Figure 43 - Network topologies). (2) Synonym for totally connected network (in artificial neural networks).

fully embossed optical disk:
An optical disk in which all data fields in the data zone are embossed. Examples: O-ROM disk, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM.

fully qualified domain name (FQDN):
A domain name including all higher-level domain names; for example: www.ncits.org is a fully qualified domain name where 'org' is the top-level domain, 'ncits', is the organizational domain, and 'www' if the logical host. Fully qualified domain names for any node must be unique as seen by all other nodes from which that node is visible.

(1) In programming languages, a subprogram, usually with formal parameters, that produces a data value which it returns to the place of the invocation. A function may also produce other changes through the use of parameters. (2) A specific purpose of an entity, or its characteristic action.

functional analysis:
A systematic investigation of the functions of a real or planned system.

functional cohesion:
Cohesion in which the activities of a module all contribute to the performance of a single, specified objective.

functional dependence:
A property of a pair (A,B) of attributes of a relation such that for each attribute value of A, there is exactly one related attribute value of B. Mathematically speaking, there exists a mapping from A to B.

functional design:
The specification of the functions of the components of a system and of the working relationships among them.

functional language:
A programming language that provides the means to state what is to be achieved by the actions of a data processing system exclusively through the use of function calls. For example, FORTH, LISP, ML, Miranda, Postscript. Synonymous with functional programming language. Contrast with imperative language.

functional programming:
A method for structuring programs mainly as sequences of possibly nested function calls.

functional programming language:
Synonym for functional language.

functional unit:
Any individual entity, group of entities, or a structure regarded as an elementary constituent of a composite entity and that is capable of accomplishing a specified purpose.

function call:
A language construct that provides the actual parameters for the invocation of the execution of a function and causes the execution. A function call may be used as an operand in an expression or as an actual parameter of a subprogram call. Contrast with procedure-call statement.

function generator:
A functional unit whose output analog variable is equal to some function of its input analog variables. A function generator that generates periodic functions, such as a sine wave, sawtooth, or square wave, has only the implicit input of time.

function key:
A key that initiates a predefined or user-programmed operation; for example, an enter key, a programmed function key.

function point analysis:
The application of quantitative metrics that measure the difficulty or extent of a software project; typical factors include the number, types, and sizes of files, interfaces, and decision points.

function preselection capability:
The ability to perform more than one function by a particular control or key.

function table:
Two or more sets of data so arranged that an entry in one set selects one or more entries in the remaining sets; for example, a dictionary, a tabulation of the values of a function for a set of values of the variable.

Synonym for linkage.

fuzzy logic:
A nonclassical logic using inference rules in which truth values and qualifiers are given continuous weights ranging from entirely true to completely false. Synonymous with fuzzy-set logic.

fuzzy set:
A set allowing for membership assignment criteria as degrees of membership in the set beyond those of inclusion and exclusion.

fuzzy-set logic:
Synonym for fuzzy logic.

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