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n-address instruction:
An instruction that contains n address parts, where n may be any nonnegative integer.

n-adic Boolean operation:
A Boolean operation on n and only n operands.

n-adic operation:
An operation on n and only n operands.

The negative-acknowledge character.

named parameter association:
In a subprogram call, the explicit naming of the formal parameters corresponding to actual parameters to establish parameter association. Synonymous with assignment by name. In named parameter association, actual parameters can be given in any order. Contrast with positional parameter association.

name qualification:
A means of referencing language constructs within the scope of a portion of a program by reference to that portion and an identifier declared for the language construct in that portion; for example: used for referencing record components (B OF A in COBOL), members of a library, language constructs in a module. Synonymous with qualification.

name resolution:
In electronic mail, a transmittal event where an O/R address is added to an O/R name if necessary.

name server:
A server that manages symbolic names and corresponding network addresses.

naming authority:
An authority responsible for the allocation of names. Naming is typically hierarchical. The authority to allocate names is limited to a portion of a particular level.

A logic operator having the property that if P is a statement and Q is a statement, then the NAND of P, Q is true if at least one statement is false, false if both statements are true. Synonymous with NOT AND.

NAND gate:
A gate that performs the Boolean operation of nonconjunction. For Boolean variables assuming values of 0 or 1, an NAND gate outputs a value 0 if and only if all the input values are 1; otherwise it outputs a value 1.

NAND operation:
Synonym for nonconjunction.

A relatively restricted frequency band, in relation to the amount of information to be transferred. A narrowband is normally used for a single purpose, or made available to a single user.

(1) Characterized by a selection, choice, or condition that has n possible different values or states. (2) Of a fixed-radix notation, having a radix of n.

n-ary Boolean operation:
Deprecated synonym for n-adic Boolean operation.

n-ary encoding:
Encoding of digital data in such a manner that, at any given instant, the signal can assume one of n possible physical states. In the case of n = 2, the term is "binary encoding".

n-ary operation:
Deprecated synonym for n-adic operation.

Nassi-Shneiderman chart:
Synonym for box diagram.

natural unit.

natural language:
A language whose rules are based on current usage without being explicitly prescribed.

natural language comprehension:
Synonym for natural language understanding.

natural language understanding:
In artificial intelligence, the extraction of information, by a computer system, from text or speech communicated to it in a natural language. Synonymous with natural language comprehension, NL understanding.

natural number:
One of the numbers one, two, three, . . . . Originally, the set of natural numbers was defined to include one and all its successors. Contrast with nonnegative integer.

natural unit (Nat):
A unit of logarithmic measure of information expressed as a logarithm to base e. Contrast with hartley, shannon.

(1) The selection of discrete units of information or nodes, by following links. (2) The process, performed by the user, of retrieving information by following links. (3) Moving through a network by following logical links from one node to another.

navigation agent:
Synonym for navigation assistant.

navigation assistant:
Software that performs tasks of navigation and some other tasks on behalf of a user. Synonymous with navigation agent.

n-bit byte:
A byte with an explicit specification of the number of its bits; for example, 7-bit byte.

numerical control.

normalized device coordinate.

nondestructive read.

nondestructive readout.

near-letter quality (NLQ):
Print quality of text that is good enough for internal letters and bulk external mailings, and that is used to obtain higher printing speed than letter quality.

A negative example of a concept to be learned that is quite similar to a positive example of that concept and may help to isolate the significant features of the concept.

necessary proposition:
In a conceptual schema language, a proposition asserted to hold for all entity worlds and to be a necessary part of all possible proposition worlds.

(1) A legitimate requirement of a prospective recipient of data to know, to access, or to possess any sensitive information represented by these data. (2) A determination that a prospective recipient of sensitive information has a legitimate requirement to access, to have knowledge of, or to possess that information. Contrast with clearance, discretionary access control.

To perform the operation of negation.

(1) The monadic logic operation whose result is True if the operand truth value is False and is False if the operand truth value is True. Truth values are frequently represented by 1 or 0 as in Boolean operations. Synonymous with NOT operation. (Figure 4 - Table of Boolean operations). (2) The algebraic operation that complements the sign associated with a numeral.

negative acknowledge character (NAK):
The transmission control character sent by a station as a negative response to the station with which the connection has been set up.

negative example:
In machine learning, a counterexample of a concept to be learned that may restrict the scope of the concept description. Synonymous with negative instance.

negative image:
An image in which the color values are reversed; for example: black becomes white, blue becomes yellow.

negative instance:
Synonym for negative example.

Deprecated synonym for entropy.

neighborhood processing:
Synonym for local transformation.

neighbor notification:
In a token-ring network, the process by which each data station identifies the next active station so that all stations that are affected by a serious failure can be informed that a failure has occurred.

NEITHER-NOR operation:
Synonym for nondisjunction.

To incorporate one or more structures of one kind into a structure of the same kind. For example, to nest one loop (the nested or inner loop) within another loop (the nesting or outer loop); to nest one procedure within another procedure.

net browser:
Synonym for network browser.

A set of rules of etiquette that the user should respect in a computer network. Synonymous with network etiquette.

net site:
Synonym for network site.

An arrangement of entities and their interconnections. In network topology or in an abstract arrangement, the interconnected entities are points on a scheme, and the interconnections are lines on the scheme. In a computer network, the interconnected entities are computers or data communication equipment, and the interconnections are data links. (Figure 43 - Network topologies).

network adapter card:
An expansion board that enables a computer to connect to a network over an electrical cable, or a fiber optic cable, by radio, or with infrared light.

network administrator:
The person responsible for operations and maintenance of a computer network.

network agent:
In network management, a functional unit that is capable of performing management operations on managed objects and of emitting notifications on behalf of managed objects. Synonymous with network assistant.

network analyzer:
A functional unit that monitors the activity on a network to support performance analysis or troubleshooting.

network architecture:
The logical structure and the operating principles of a computer network. The operating principles of a network include those of services, functions, and protocols.

network assistant:
Synonym for network agent.

network browser:
A program for the navigation over a computer network. This program formats and displays information from the network in a form suitable to the user. A network browser may work in a text-only mode or in a graphical mode. Synonymous with net browser.

network chart:
In project control, a directed graph used for describing and scheduling events, activities, and their relationships.

network data model:
A data model whose pattern of structure is based on a network structure; for example, the CODASYL model.

network etiquette:
Synonym for netiquette.

network file system:
A file system distributed over a computer network.

network information center (NIC):
An organization that provides information management, technical support, and administrative services to users of a network.

The processes involved in managing, operating, or using computer networks.

network layer:
In OSI, the layer that provides the end-point entities in the transport layer with the means for transferring blocks of data. This is the layer of the Internet Protocol. The network layer may use intermediate systems. (Figure 47 - The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model).

network management:
The monitoring and controlling of components of a computer network, including the configuration of the network, and the allocation of resources across the network.

network management server:
A server that provides network administrative or network management services.

network manager:
A person or a functional unit that is capable of initiating management operations and receiving notifications.

network number:
A number that identifies a computer network in a set of interconnected networks. In the Internet Protocol, this number forms a part of the IP address of each computer of the network.

network operating system (NOS):
An operating system that makes a collection of independent computers act as one computer system. Features may include centralized login and reallocation of resources across the network.

network operations center (NOC):
An organization responsible for the operation and maintenance of a network.

network site:
A set of functional units providing network services, belonging to one management domain, and considered as a whole. Synonymous with net site.

network structure:
A data structure that arranges entities or attributes as nodes and that, in contrast to a tree structure, permits nodes to have multiple parent nodes.

network topology:
The schematic arrangement of the branches and nodes of a network. Topologies may be physical or logical; for example, a logical ring may be physically implemented as a star network.

network weaving:
In security, a penetration technique in which different communication networks are used to gain access to a data processing system to avoid detection and trace-back.

neural computer:
Synonym for neurocomputer.

neural connection:
In artificial neural networks, a link between two artificial neurons that is defined by the source neuron, the destination neuron, and a connection weight. Synonymous with neural link.

neural link:
Synonym for neural connection.

neural net (NN):
Synonym for artificial neural network.

neural network (NN):
Synonym for artificial neural network.

neural-network model:
An abstract model of a neural network that can be simulated in software or implemented as a neurocomputer.

neural recognition:
In computer vision, image recognition with algorithms using artificial neural networks.

A reconfigurable chip that implements all or part of a neural-network model.

An artificial neural network implemented by hardware. Synonymous with neural computer.

Deprecated synonym for artificial neuron.

new-line character (NL):
A format effector that causes the print or display position to move to the first position on the next line.

news client:
Synonym for news reader.

Synonym for forum.

news reader:
Client software that formats and displays information from one or more news servers in a form suitable to the user. Synonymous with news client.

news server:
A server that stores, organizes, and distributes messages for forums. Synonymous with forum server.

network information center.

nines complement:
The diminished radix complement in the decimal system.

The new-line character.

NL understanding:
Synonym for natural language understanding.

near-letter quality

neural network, neural net.

Name of an application protocol providing means to transfer files for computer conferences. NNTP is the abbreviation for Network News Transfer Protocol.

no-break space:
Synonym for hard space.

network operations center.

(1) In a network, an entity that is associated with or connected to one or more other entities. In network topology or in an abstract arrangement, the nodes are points on a scheme. In a computer network, the nodes are computers or data communication equipment. A network may contain end nodes and intermediate nodes. (2) In a data structure, a point from which subordinate items originate. A node may have no subordinate items and is then called a terminal node. (3) In a data network, a point where one or more functional units interconnect transmission channels or data circuits.

A disturbance that affects a signal and that may distort the information carried by the signal.

noise burst signal:
In a token-bus network or a token-ring network, a signal indicating that there is activity on the transmission medium that does not result in a valid frame.

noise reduction:
In computer vision, the processing of an image to remove unwanted effects from the image.

nominal transfer rate:
The designated or theoretical number of units of data (e.g., bits or bytes) that can be transferred per unit of time.

nominal type:
A data type without any specific ordering regardless of any ordering that may be involved in its representation; for example, a set of diseases form a nominal type even though their representation as alphabetic strings can be ordered. In practice, nominal types can also be implemented as enumeration types but compare operations other than equality should be excluded.

nonadd function:
On a printing calculator, the function that allows the printing of characters without affecting the calculations.

A transmittal event in which a message transfer agent determines that the message transfer system could not deliver a message described in a probe to one of its immediate recipients. In this case the message transfer agent may generate a nondelivery report.

The logic operation whose results is False if and only if all its operands are True. Truth values are frequently represented by 1 and 0 as in Boolean operations. Synonymous with NAND operation, NOT-BOTH operation. (Figure 4 - Table of Boolean operations).

In electronic mail, a transmittal event in which a message transfer agent determines that a message cannot be delivered to its immediate recipients, or a report cannot be delivered to the originator of the corresponding message or probe. In the case of a message, the message transfer agent generates a nondelivery report.

nondelivery notification service:
A service that enables an originator's user agent to request to be notified if a submitted message was not delivered to a recipient's user agent or to an access unit. The reason the message was not delivered may be included as part of the notification. In the case of a multirecipient message, this notification can refer to any or all recipients to whom the message could not be delivered.

nondestructive read (NDR):
Reading that does not erase the data in the source location. Synonymous with nondestructive readout.

nondestructive readout (NDRO):
Synonym for nondestructive read.

The logic operation whose results is True if and only if each operand has a truth value of False. Truth values are frequently represented by 1 and 0 as in Boolean operations. Synonymous with NOR operation, NEITHER-NOR operation. (Figure 4 - Table of Boolean operations).

nonembedded command:
In text processing, an instruction that causes an immediate change to the document being processed at the time the command is entered.

The logic operation whose results is True if and only if any pair of operands have different Truth values. Truth values are frequently represented by 1 and 0 as in Boolean operations. (Figure 4 - Table of Boolean operations).

nonescaping key:
A key that does not cause an advance to the next imprint position when the key is struck.

nonhierarchical planning:
In artificial intelligence, a planning technique that selects skeleton plans from a predetermined set of plans and instantiates them by means of problem solving operators for a particular problem context.

nonimpact printer:
A printer in which printing is accomplished by some means other than mechanically striking the printing medium. Examples of nonimpact printers are ink jet printers, thermal printers, and electrostatic printers.

nonimplication gate:
Synonym for exclusion gate.

nonisolated amplifier:
An amplifier that has an electrical connection between the signal circuit and another circuit, including ground.

nonlayered network:
An artificial neural network whose artificial neurons are not organized in layers.

Pertaining to the characteristic of code-extension characters in which a change in interpretation applies only to a specified number of the coded representations following; usually, that number is one.

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