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medium interface connector.

magnetic ink character recognition, magnetic ink character reader.

Microchannel Architecture (MCA):
A proprietary, microcomputer bus standard that supports a 32-bit data exchange.

Synonym for integrated circuit.

A collection of microinstructions, comprising part of, all of, or a set of microprograms.

microcode assembler:
A program that translates microprograms from symbolic form to binary form.

A digital computer whose processing unit consists of one or more microprocessors, and includes storage and input/output facilities.

A diagnostic technique which uses a special-purpose microprogram incorporated in a functional unit, or externally based, as necessary.

A sheet of microfilm capable of containing microimages in a grid pattern, usually containing a title that can be read without magnification.

(1) A high-resolution film for recording microimages. (2) To record microimages on film.

A medium, such as microfiche or microfilm, that is suitable for recording microimages.

Technology concerned with methods and techniques for converting any form of information to or from microform.

An image that is too small to be read by humans without magnification.

One or more of the basic operations needed to carry out a machine instruction or another selfcontained hardware function, and that denotes the operands belonging to these operations. Microinstructions are the true machine instructions, and microcode is used to create a virtual machine that appears to have a more user-friendly instruction set.

In microprogramming, one of the basic operations needed to carry out a machine instruction or another selfcontained hardware function.

A tiny pin embedded in a glove output device or a body suit that transmits sensations of pressure, texture, or tangibility to a wearer coming in contact with virtual objects.

A processor implemented as a single integrated circuit.

A sequence of microinstructions that, together with corresponding hardware components, controls the performance of a machine instruction or another selfcontained hardware function.

microprogrammable computer:
A computer in which microprograms can be created or altered by the user.

Programming using microinstructions. Microprogramming is an alternative to hard-wiring the control signals necessary to carry out machine instructions.

A device for producing tactile impressions.

A standardized interface used in the music industry for interfacing digital musical instruments. MIDI is the abbreviation for Musical Instrument Digital Interface.

MIMD processor:
multiple instruction - multiple data processor.

Name of an application protocol providing means to transfer files through the use of electronic mail. MIME is the abbreviation for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension.

A digital computer that is functionally intermediate between a microcomputer and a mainframe.

A disk smaller in diameter than a conventional floppy disk. Synonymous with minifloppy.

Synonym for minidisk.

Synonym for iconize.

minimum distance code:
A binary code in which the logical distance between code values does not fall below a specified minimum value.

minimum privilege:
Restriction of the access rights of a subject to only those access rights that are necessary for the execution of authorized tasks.

A unit of measurement of processing performance equal to one million instructions per second. MIPS is the abbreviation for Millions of Instructions Per Second.

(1) The creation of a display image such that each element of the display image has a duplicate symmetrically located with respect to a common axis. (2) The duplication of stored data on an alternate device to support recovery from failures. (3) In networking, maintenance of identical copies of files or of processes at one or more network sites.

management information system.

missing pulse:
A pulse whose level cannot be read or recorded.

A human action or inaction that can produce an unintended result. An expected result may occur even if a mistake is made. Synonymous with human error. Contrast with error.

mixed-base notation:
A numeration system in which a number is represented as the sum of a series of terms each of which consists of a coefficient and a base, the base of a given term being constant for a given application, but the bases being such that there are not necessarily integral ratios between the bases of all the terms; for example: with bases b3, b2, and b1 and coefficients 6, 5, and 4, the number represented is given by 6b3 + 5b2 + 4b1.

mixed mode:
Pertaining to an expression that contains two or more different data types.

mixed-radix notation:
A radix notation in which the digit places do not all necessarily have the same radix; for example: the numeration system in which three successive digits represent hours, tens of minutes, and minutes; taking one minute as the unit, the weights of the three digit places are 60, 10, and 1 respectively; the radices of the second and third digit places are 6 and 10 respectively. A comparable numeration system that used one or more digits to represent days and two digits to represent hours would not satisfy the definition of any radix notation, since the ratio of the weights of the "day" and the "tens of hours" digit places would not be an integer.

manufacturing message service.

memory management unit.

A method, condition, manner, or way of doing, acting, operating, or functioning.

model-based object recognition:
Image recognition based on comparison with predefined models of objects.

model-based synthesis:
A method of speech synthesis that uses a speech production model to generate speech signals.

model-based system:
In artificial intelligence, an expert system that is based on the structure and function of a domain model; for example: the "student models" that can be found in some intelligent tutoring systems, and the templates that are built in some diagnostic systems.

model-based vision system:
A vision system using an a priori model to derive a desired description of the original scene from an image.

model-driven inference:
An inference that uses a domain model.

A functional unit that modulates and demodulates signals. Frequently, a modem is used to enable digital signals to be transmitted over analog transmission facilities. The word "modem" is a contraction of MOdulator-DEModulator.

modem board:
An internal modem constructed on an expansion board.

modem card:
An internal modem constructed on an expansion card.

moderated conference:
A computer conference in which participants exchange messages via a moderator who may accept, modify, or reject them.

In a computer conference, a person who receives the proposed postings and may accept, modify, or reject them.

In programming, a measure of the ease with which changes can be made to a program.

(1) An addition or change to stored data or a deletion of stored data. (2) In a conceptual schema language, the addition, replacement or deletion of one or more sentences in the information base or conceptual schema, thus potentially changing the collection of sentences that are deducible.

modification command:
In a data manipulation language, one of a set of statements that allows an application software or a database administrator to insert, update, and delete information stored in a database.

modified frequency modulation recording:
Nonreturn-to-zero recording in which there is a change in the condition of magnetization in the center of a cell containing a one, and a change in the boundary between two cells each of which contains a zero. Synonymous with MFM recording. (Figure 41 - Modified frequency modulation recording).

MO disk:
Synonym for magneto-optical disk.

A programming language developed as an improved version of Pascal with capabilities for business data processing, direct control of hardware, and support of modular design. The name is derived from modular language 2.

A measure of the extent to which a program is composed of modules, such that a change to one module has minimal impact on other components.

modular programming:
A software development technique in which software is developed as a collection of modules.

The process by which at least one characteristic quantity of a carrier is varied in accordance with a characteristic quantity of a signal to be transmitted.

modulation rate:
In digital signals, the reciprocal of the nominal significant interval of the modulated signal. The typical unit is the baud.

A functional unit that converts a signal into a modulated signal suitable for transmission.

Synonym for modem.

(1) A part of a program developed to be discrete or identifiable with respect to actions such as compilation, binding, or execution, and that may interact with other programs or parts of programs. The concept referred to by the term "module" may vary according to the different programming languages. Synonymous with program unit. (2) In an information resource dictionary system, a set of capabilities that may be required or optional. (Figure 42 - Examples of modules).

module strength:
Synonym for cohesion.

modulo-n counter:
A counter in which the number represented reverts to zero in the sequence of counting after reaching a maximum value of n - 1.

Meta Object Facility.

A usually spurious pattern that results from the combination of two periodic signals or patterns.

monadic operation:
An operation on one and only one operand. Synonymous with unary operation.

monadic operator:
An operator that represents an operation on one and only one operand. Synonymous with unary operator.

(1) A user terminal with a display surface. Synonymous with video display terminal, video display unit. (2) In programming languages, a shared data object together with a set of operations that may manipulate the data object in order to control requests for resources or access to the resources that are available to parallel processes, but only to one process at a time. (3) A device that observes and records selected activities within a data processing system for analysis. Possible uses of monitors are to indicate significant departures from the norm or to determine levels of use of particular units.

(1) Pertaining to the use of one type of medium. Synonymous with single-media. (2) The domain of monomedia concepts, applications, and techniques. (Figure 67 - Media and links). (Figure 68 - Current usage of terms in relation to the characteristics). (Figure 69 - Examples of object types).

In text processing, the use of fixed-width character boxes for all characters. Synonymous with fixed spacing, fixed-pitch spacing. Contrast with proportional spacing.

Pertaining to an entity that has one stable state.

monostable circuit:
Synonym for monostable trigger circuit.

monostable multivibrator:
Synonym for monostable trigger circuit.

monostable trigger circuit:
A trigger circuit that has one stable state and one unstable state. Synonymous with monostable circuit, monostable multivibrator, one-shot.

An image containing a composite of multiple juxtaposed and superimposed hyperobjects.

Monte Carlo method:
A heuristic mathematical technique for evaluation or estimation of intractable problems by probabilistic simulation and sampling; for example, the solution of numerial problems may be approximated by multiple simulations using random numbers and averaging the results.

To metamorphose, or to transform pieces of one image into another image for, possibly, surreal results.

Synonym for mathematical morphology.

An early version of a graphical user interface that permits the user to browse the World Wide Web and to access both text and graphical images. Contrast with Lynx.

most significant bit (MSB):
In positional notation, the bit position having the largest weight used. Excluding the sign character, it is the first or leftmost bit when the numeral is written in the usual manner.

most significant digit (MSD):
In positional notation, the digit place having the largest weight used. Excluding the sign character, it is the first or leftmost digit when the numeral is written in the usual manner.

The main circuit board containing the primary components of a computer.

motion dynamics:
The movement of objects in a display that gives the observer the impression either that the objects are moving with respect to his stationary position or that the observer is moving about or within the objects.

motion platform:
The equipment that produces the bodily sensation of movement in space; for example, motion platforms are used in airplane simulation.

message-oriented text interchange system.

To place a data medium in a position to operate. By extension, the term is used for making a logical connection to a remote file system analogous to mounting a data medium on a local system.

A hand-held pointing device operated by moving it on a surface other than the display surface. A mouse is usually equipped with one or more pushbuttons for selecting items, or instigating action on the screen. Contrast with trackball.

mouse pad:
A surface on which a mouse can be moved, typically a rectangular pad covered with fabric to improve traction.

mouse pen:
A pen-like pointing device that is operated by dragging its tip on a surface or by directly tapping it on a screen.

mouse tray:
A small and flat tray designed to contain the movements of a mouse by its operator and often having a wrist-rest.

(1) To relocate data or files. Contrast with transfer, transmit. (2) Deprecated synonym for copy.

A standardized method of compressing and storing video and audio data. MPEG is the abbreviation for Moving Pictures Experts Group.

massively parallel processing.

material requirements planning, manufacturing resource planning.

message store.

most significant bit.

most significant digit.

message transfer.

message transfer agent.

message transfer system.

mean time between failures.

mean time to failure.

mean time to repair.

Transmission of the same data to a selected group of destinations.

A computer including two or more main processors that communicate with each other, each having its own address space.

multidimensional language:
A language whose expressions are assembled in more than one dimension, such as flowcharts, logic diagrams, block diagrams, and decision tables.

multifunction board:
An expansion board that provides more than one function, such as, serial/parallel ports and a clock/calendar.

multilayered network:
In artificial neural networks, a layered network having at least two layers of artificial neurons.

multilevel address:
Synonym for indirect address.

multilevel device:
In computer security, a functional unit that can simultaneously process data of two or more security levels without risk of compromising computer security.

(1) Pertaining to the combined use of more than one type of media. A multimedia presentation may combine audio, text, two- and three-dimensional graphics, still pictures, or moving pictures. (2) The domain of multimedia concepts, applications, and techniques. applications, and techniques. (Figure 67 - Media and links). (Figure 68 - Current usage of terms in relation to the characteristics). (Figure 69 - Examples of object types).

multimedia object:
Hyperobjects using two or more types of representation media; for example: audio embedded in text. (Figure 69 - Examples of object types).

multipass sort:
A sort program that is designed to sort more items than can be in main storage at one time.

multiple access:
Any technique whereby a number of data stations are able to share a resource in a predetermined manner, or in accordance with traffic demand. Examples of shared resourses are: a bus in a local area network, a satellite transponder.

multiple firing:
The firing of rules more than once for accessing knowledge over and over in the same consultation.

multiple image pixel point processing:
A processing technique that involves the combination of two or more images which are processed pixel by pixel. This technique is useful for applications requiring image overlays, defect detection, etc.

multiple instruction - multiple data processor (MIMD processor):
A parallel processor where many functional units perform the different operation on different data; for example, multiprocessors and multicomputers.

multiple precision:
Characterized by the use of two or more computer words to represent a number in order to enhance precision.

To interleave or to transmit concurrently two or more signals on a single transmission channel.

In data communications, a functional unit for assembling signals from separate sources into a single composite signal. Synonymous with data multiplexer.

(1) A process for combining signals from several seperate sources into a signal for transmission over a single transmission channel. (2) In OSI, a function within a given layer by which more than one connection of this layer is supported by one connection of the next lower layer. The term "multiplexing" is also used in a more restricted sense to refer to the function performed by the sending entity while the term "demultiplexing" is used to refer to the function performed by the receiving entity.

multiplex operation:
A mode of operation in which the events of two or more activities are interleaved and, when required, the events in the interleaved sequence are distributed to the respective activities.

multipoint connection:
A connection established among more than two data stations.

An operating mode that provides for simultaneous processing of tasks by two or more processors of a multiprocessor.

A computer including two or more main processors sharing a memory with a single address space.

An operating mode that provides for the interleaved execution of two or more programs by a single processor.

multirange amplifier:
An amplifier that has a switchable, programmable, or automatically set amplification factor in order to adapt different analog signal ranges to a specified output range.

multistroke character entry:
A text entry method that requires multiple keystrokes to produce a single character.

An operating mode that provides for the concurrent performance, or interleaved execution of two or more tasks.

The capability of an application to execute in two or more locations in a program using multiple threads. Multithreading is sometimes used interchangeably with multitasking in reference to an operating system that supports threads.

A high-level interactive programming language for use in the development and implementation of interactive information systems with shared databases. The post-1993 name for this language is M. MUMPS is the abbreviation for Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multiprogramming System.

musical instrument digital interface:

mutual exclusion:
In programming, a principle requiring that, at a given time, only one asynchronous procedure may access the same shared variable or execute members of a group of critical sections.

mutual information:
Synonym for transinformation content.

mutual recursion:
A situation in which two subprograms call each other.

mutual suspicion:
In computer security, the relationship between interacting entities in which neither entity relies upon the other entity to function correctly or securely with respect to some property.

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