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interblock gap.

integrated circuit.

IC memory:
Synonym for integrated circuit memory.

A graphic symbol, displayed on a screen, to which the user can point with a device, such as a mouse, in order to select a particular function or software application. The graphic symbol is usually a pictorial representation. Synonymous with pictogram.

To replace a window with an icon. Synonymous with stow, minimize. Contrast with maximize.

IDE (integrated drive electronics):
A type of interface between a computer and a disk drive for standalone personal computers.

ideal image:
Synonym for perfection image.

In computer security, the process that enables recognition of an entity by a system, through personal, equipment, or organizational characteristics or codes.

(1) In organization of data, one or more characters used to identify or name a data element and possibly to indicate certain properties of that data element. (2) In a programming language, a lexical token that names a language construct. For example, the names of variables, arrays, records, labels, procedures, etc. An identifier usually consists of a letter optionally followed by letters, digits, or other characters.

identity authentication:
The performance of tests to enable a data processing system to recognize entities; for example, the checking of a password or of an identity token. Synonymous with identity validation.

identity-based access control:
In computer security, access control based on the identities of subjects and the object that are being accessed. Contrast with resource-based access control.

identity gate:
A gate that performs the equivalence operation. For Boolean variables assuming values of 0 or 1, an identity gate outputs a value 1 if and only if all of its input values are the same; otherwise it outputs a value 0.

identity operation:
Synonym for equivalence operation.

identity token:
A device used for identity authentication; for example, smart card, metal key.

identity unit:
An input unit for n input signals that yields an output signal only when all n input signals are alike.

identity validation:
Synonym for identity authentication.

In a natural language, a graphic character or symbol that represents an object or a concept, and possibly associated sound elements. For example, a Chinese ideogram or a Japanese kanji. Synonymous with ideographic character. (Figure 12 - Character taxonomy).

ideogram entry:
A text entry method for ideograms that combines multistroke character entry, based on phonograms, with conversion to ideograms by means of a dictionary and syntax rules. For example, Kana-Kanji conversion entry for Japanese characters, Pinyin-Hanji conversion entry for Chinese characters.

ideographic character:
Synonym for ideogram.

idle time:
That part of up time when a functional unit is not being used.

International Electrotechnical Commission.

Internet Engineering Task Force.

IF-AND-ONLY-IF operation:
Synonym for equivalence operation.


if statement:
In programming, a conditional statement that causes execution of the enclosed sequences of statements or skips them depending on the truth value of the conditional expression. Synonymous with if-then statement.

IF-THEN operation:
Synonym for implication.

if-then rule:
A formulated rule that specifies a logical relationship among a set of propositions and that consists of an "if" part representing the premise or condition and a "then" part representing the goal or action to be taken when the "if" part is true.

if-then statement:
Synonym for if statement.

illegal character:
A character or combination of bits that is not valid according to some criterion; for example, with respect to a specified alphabet, a character that is not a member would be illegal in that set.

A representation of visual aspects of one or more objects or concepts. Examples: A photograph, hologram, drawing, frame of video, X-ray picture.

image acquisition:
The process by which an image is obtained. Image acquisition generally involves analog-to-digital conversion.

image algebra:
A set of image-processing algorithms whose variables are images and whose operations are either logical or arithmetic or both.

image analysis:
The process of determining components in an image and determining their relationships.

image blending:
An operation in which the resulting pixel value is a combination of the values of the two component pixels.

image complementation:
Image transformation that results in the negative image of the initial image.

image compression:
An operation that reduces the amount of memory needed to store an image or the time needed to transmit an image.

image degradation:
A deleterious change in the definition, brightness, fidelity, or other attribute of an image.

image dissector:
In optical character recognition, a mechanical or electronic transducer that sequentially detects the level of light intensity in different areas of a completely illuminated space.

image file:
A file that contains one or more images.

image interpretation:
The production, by a computer system, of a description for both a given image and the world scene that the image represents. Image interpretation results from integrating visual data by means of geometric modeling, knowledge representations, and cognitive modeling. Image interpretation preceeds image understanding.

image plane:
In an optical system, the plane that contains the desired image.

image preprocessing:
Enhancement, transformation, filtering, or other preparation of images before more detailed processing.

image processing:
The process of applying any operation to image data for a given purpose. Examples of operations include scene analysis, image compression, image restoration, image enhancement, image preprocessing, quantizing, spatial filtering, and construction of two- and three-dimensional models of objects. Synonymous with picture processing.

image processor:
A functional unit that performs image processing.

image recognition:
Perception, analysis, and identification by a functional unit of one or more constituent objects within an image. Image recognition may include scene analysis.

image regeneration:
The sequence of events needed to generate a display image from its representation in storage.

image restoration:
The process by which a degraded image is returned to its original condition. Image restoration is possible only to the extent that the degradation is mathematically invertible.

image segmentation:
The process of breaking an image into regions of interest and identifying which resolution cells are included in each region.

image subtraction:
An operation in which each pixel value of one image is subtracted from its corresponding pixel value in another image.

image synthesizer:
A functional unit that generates a visual representation of objects by a computer without reference to real images.

image transformation:
Any operation that produces an output image from an input image. Examples: The selection and enlargement of a part of an image as in a zoom operation; the relocation of an object within an image.

image translation:
In computer graphics, the movement of an image such that every point of the image moves parallel to and the same distance as every other point of the image. Image translation is a nonrotational displacement of an image.

image transmission:
Electronic transfer of images from one point to another over a network.

image understanding:
The comprehension of the significance of a scene. The output of image interpretation may serve as input to image understanding.

The process of creating an image.

imaging system:
The hardware and software designed specifically to capture, store, manipulate, transmit, and display images from either direct computation, real environments, models, or documents.

immediate access storage:
A storage device whose access time is negligible in comparison with other operating times.

immediate address:
Deprecated synonym for immediate operand.

immediate data:
Data contained in an instruction.

immediate instruction:
Synonym for direct instruction.

immediate operand:
The contents of the address part of a machine instruction that contains the value of an operand rather than an address.

immediate processing:
Processing of data as they are received by a data processing system without being queued or postponed.

immediate recipient:
A potential recipient assigned to a particular instance of a message or probe. Particular instances are created by submission and may be created by splitting or by distribution list expansion.

The sensation perceived by a participant in the virtual world, marking the transition from the actual reality to virtual reality.

immersive graphics:
The display of pictures that are combined with sounds and other effects to produce total immersion.

impact printer:
A printer in which printing is the result of mechanically striking the printing medium.

imperative language:
A programming language that achieves its primary effect by changing the state of variables by assignment statements. Contrast with functional language.

imperative statement:
Synonym for unconditional statement.

Of a system, the system development phase at the end of which the hardware, software, and procedures of the system considered become operational.

implementation verification:
The use of verification techniques to demonstrate a correspondence between a formal specification of a system and its implementation.

The dyadic logic operation whose result is False if and only if the first operand is True and the second is False. Truth values are frequently represented by 1 or 0 as in Boolean operations. Synonymous with IF-THEN operation. (Figure 4 - Table of Boolean operations).

A gate that performs the Boolean operation of implication. There are two forms of implication logic corresponding to the alternate directions of implication. Consider P implies Q, where P and Q are logical variables that take on values of 1 (or True) or 0 (or False). Then P –>Q has a value of 1 for all values of P and Q except where P is 1 and Q is 0.

implicit addressing:
A method of addressing in which the operation part of an instruction also denotes the location of one or more of the operands. For example, if a computer has only one accumulator, an instruction that refers to the accumulator needs no address information describing it. Synonymous with implied addressing.

implicit declaration:
A declaration caused by the occurrence of an identifier that designates an object, whose characteristics are determined by default. For example, in Fortran, variables whose names begin with the letters I through N are implicitly declared to be integer unless there is an overriding explicit declaration.

implied addressing:
Synonym for implicit addressing.

implied decimal type:
Synonym for fixed-point type.

In electronic mail, a transmittal step in which an access unit conveys an information object from an external communication system to a message transfer agent within the message transfer system.

Synonym for export/import.

Synonym for pulse.

inactive window:
A window, whether visible or not, that does not have the focus, and thus does not recognize keystrokes, mouse movements, or other such events.

inadvertent disclosure:
In computer security, accidental exposure of sensitive information to an unauthorized user, which may result in a compromise or a need-to-know violation.

A mailbox that contains incoming messages. Synonymous with inbox.

Synonym for in-basket.

Synonym for disjunction.

Synonym for INCLUSIVE-OR gate.

A gate that performs the Boolean operation of disjunction. For Boolean variables assuming values of 0 or 1, an INCLUSIVE-OR gate outputs a value 1 if one or more of its input values are 1; it outputs a value 0 only if all input values are 0. The term "OR gate" without a qualifier is generally taken to be an INCLUSIVE-OR gate. Synonymous with OR gate.

incomplete parameter checking:
In computer security, a system fault that exists when not all parameters have been checked for accuracy and consistency by the operating system, thus making the system vulnerable to penetration.

incremental compiler:
A compiler that completes as much of the translation as possible upon the input or scanning of each complete source statement; this compiler is typically used for online program development and checkout.

incremental coordinate:
In computer graphics, a relative coordinate in which the previously addressed point is the reference point.

incremental learning:
Multistage adaptive learning in which knowledge learned at one stage is transformed in order to accommodate new knowledge provided at subsequent stages.

incremental representation:
A method of representing variables in which changes in the values of the variables are represented, rather than the values themselves.

incremental tape unit:
A magnetic tape unit that can record one character at a time, and create interrecord gaps only when explicitly directed.

increment size:
The distance between adjacent addressable points on the display surface.

To begin a line farther in from the margin than the other lines.

independent compilation:
The compilation of a source module not using data representing interface and context relationships from related source modules. When independently compiled units are eventually combined, it may be necessary to check interface and context data for validity.

(1) A list of the contents of a file or of a document, together with keys or references for locating the contents. (2) In programming, an integer that identifies the position of a data item in a sequence of data items.

indexed access:
Pertaining to the organization and accessing of the records of a storage structure through a separate index to the locations of the stored records.

indexed address:
An address that is to be modified by the content of one or more index registers.

indexed sequential access:
Pertaining to the organization and accessing of records through an index of the keys that are stored in arbitrarily partitioned sequential files.

index hole:
A hole punched in a floppy disk to indicate the beginning of the first sectors of the disk.

index register:
A register whose contents can be used to modify an operand address during the execution of an instruction. An index register may also be used as a counter to control the execution of a loop, to control the use of an array, for table lookup, as a switch, or as a pointer.

index track:
A track whose contents are needed to locate data on other tracks of the same data medium.

index type:
An ordinal type whose values represent subscripts of an array.

indication primitive:
In OSI, a primitive issued by a service provider to an accepting service user or indicating that a request primitive has been invoked by a sending service user at a peer service access point. (Figure 51 - Primitive).

A device or a variable that can be set to a prescribed state based on the results of a process or the occurrence of a specified condition. For example, a flag, a semaphore.

indigenous error:
A fault in a program that has not been purposely inserted as part of error seeding. Synonymous with indigenous fault.

indigenous fault:
Deprecated synonym for indigenous error.

indirect address:
An address that identifies the storage location of another address. The designated storage location may contain the address of the desired operand or another indirect address; the chain of addresses eventually leads to the operand. Synonymous with multilevel address.

indirect instruction:
An instruction that contains an indirect address.

indirectly recursive:
Pertaining to a subprogram that calls another subprogram which calls the original subprogram or that initiates a further chain of subprogram calls that eventually leads back to a subprogram call of the original subprogram.

indirect referencing:
Referencing via a data object that points to a referenced language construct. The referencing may be done along a chain of data objects, in which case each data object, except the last, points to the next, the last data object pointing to the referenced language construct.

indirect submission:
A submission in which a user agent conveys a message or probe to a message transfer agent via a message store.

indirect user:
A user that engages in message handling through another communication system linked to a message handling system. The other communication system may be a postal system or the telex.

individual accountability:
In computer security, the ability to positively associate the identity of a user with the time, method, and degree of access to a system.

An inference that starts with given facts and concludes with general hypotheses. Synonymous with inductive inference.

inductive inference:
Synonym for induction.

inductive learning:
A learning strategy in which inductions are drawn from supplied knowledge, examples, or observations. Synonymous with learning by induction.

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